I used to be born in India and, as a younger little one, I developed a severe intestine an infection that will have killed me if it hadn’t been for antibiotics.
Lately a younger little one in India, with the identical situation, could be way more susceptible due to the massive and fast rise in antibiotic resistance in that a part of the world.
The issue isn’t, in fact, confined to India. It is estimated that antibiotic-resistant infections at present kill no less than 700,000 individuals a 12 months.
That is projected to rise to 10 million by 2050. What is especially worrying is that in addition to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the risk it poses – there have been no new courses of antibiotics launched up to now 30 years.
I needed to make a documentary that explores the explanations behind the rise of the superbugs and what progress is being made to seek out new methods to counter them.
The producer of the documentary, Peter Gauvain, was eager to reveal me to a few of the extra disagreeable superbugs round after which see if we might deal with them.
Since this was clearly unwise, we compromised by creating life-size fashions of my head and physique out of a nutrient-rich jelly known as agar.
We used my physique doubles – whom we dubbed “Microbial Michael” – to experiment on.
The outcomes have been fascinating and reasonably disturbing.
We began by swabbing my actual physique after which wiping these microbes on to my physique double.
The proper hand aspect of Microbial Michael had beforehand been saturated with a robust, broad spectrum antibiotic.
How lengthy would the antibiotic maintain the micro organism at bay? Reply: not lengthy in any respect.
Inside days each side of “my” physique had grow to be a battlefield of competing microbes, a few of them fairly nasty pathogens.
So what about novel remedies?
The encouraging factor is that we did come throughout plenty of completely different approaches to preventing the specter of antibiotic resistance that have been promising.
One of many oldest approaches, which within the West is just now coming again into vogue, is the usage of viruses to assault micro organism.
Simply as we’re liable to viral infections, such because the frequent chilly, so are micro organism.
The viruses that infect and kill micro organism are generally known as bacteriophages or phages.
It has been estimated there are greater than 10 million trillion trillion phages round, which is greater than each different organism on Earth, mixed.
Phages have been first found greater than a century in the past and have been used to deal with bacterial infections in plenty of specialised centres in Central and Japanese Europe ever since.
There is a clinic in Poland the place they use phage remedy on sufferers who’ve infections which can be resistant to each recognized antibiotic.
There, we met a lady known as Boguslawo, who had developed an an infection in her leg after stepping on a rusty nail, which neither antibiotics nor typical remedy might heal.
Confronted with the selection of attempting phages or having her leg amputated, she put her religion within the phages and, thus far, that religion appears to be justified.
Filled with potential
Dr Alex Betts, of Oxford College, is certainly one of a handful of scientists within the UK at present working with phages, and he kindly agreed to reveal their effectiveness by infecting my agar double with a superbug known as pseudomonas.
This causes septicaemia (an an infection of the blood) and pneumonia, each of which will be deadly. Briefly, it is nasty.
He swabbed my agar face with a multi-drug resistant pressure of pseudomonas after which coated a part of it with a small bandage, impregnated with phages.
A while later, after we examined my contaminated face beneath ultraviolet gentle, it was clear that the phages had achieved their work.
All the remainder of the face had been colonised by pseudomonas, other than the small patch the place he had put the phage bandage.
There have been no correct medical trials of phage remedy within the UK but, so they will not be seen outdoors of the lab any time quickly.
However I am satisfied that these viruses are full of potential.
As Dr Betts defined, one of many nice benefits of phage remedy is there may be much less threat of micro organism growing resistance.
“Phages must infect micro organism as a way to survive,” he mentioned.
“And if antibiotic resistance evolves, they’ll co-evolve quickly.
“They don’t seem to be going to switch antibiotics, however there are specific roles that they’ll fill that can ease the strain on our current therapeutics, purchase us time to develop new antimicrobials.
“And phages can actually be used alongside antibiotics.”
In addition to phages, we additionally tried infecting after which treating my physique double with a novel antibiotic derived from ants, found by Prof Matt Hutchings and his crew on the College of East Anglia.
This time we contaminated “my” face with the superbug MRSA (methycyliin resistant staph aureus), which – I am happy to say – the ant antibiotic was in a position to struggle off.
Prof Hutchings is cautiously enthusiastic about their discovery, as he’s effectively conscious that growing new medicine is massively costly and may take quite a lot of time.
And with a possible antibiotic apocalypse approaching quick, time isn’t on our aspect.
Michael Mosley vs The Superbugs is on BBC 4 on Wednesday, 17 Might, at 21:00 BST.
Be part of the dialog on our Facebok web page.